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EYE DISEASES

A NOTE TO PATIENTS
For your convenience, somabose.com has compiled a comprehensive list of eye diseases. The below information should not be used as a substitute for visiting your eye care specialist in diagnosing any possible health and eyesight issues. If you feel that you are in need of immediate assistance, contact a Virginia eye care expert to set up an appointment.



Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy (AZOOR)
AZOOR is a condition where due to inflimation, the retina at the back of the eye malfunctions. In the same nature that film lines the back of a camera, the retina lines the back of the eye. Vision decreases in quality and may become absent or dull as the retinal loses functionality. Some symptoms of AZOOR include the apperance of an enlarged blind spot, and can also reult in flashing lights. Visual loss may stabalize after spreading for a period of time. In general, patients who suffer from AZOOR regain their sight over a period of one to three years as the retina recovers its functionality. In a small percentage of patients, there is no recovery and over time, this condition becomes apparent to the examiner, as the structural changes to the back of the eye become easily detectable. At this time, there is no known treatment for AZOOR.

Adie Syndrome
Adie syndrome (also known as Adie's tonic pupil) is a physical finding, when a pupil is dialted, that it reacts better to accommodation than to light. The pupil will residually react in a "tonic" or sluggish manner. This problem is most common in women. It is important to not confuse Adie's Pupil with Argyll-Robertson Pupil (pupil is detected as being small and irregular).

Ocular Albinism
This condition is inherited. Ocular Albinism results in a condition where a patient's eyes lack melanin pigment, but skin and hair retain normal or near-normal coloration. Ocular Albinism causes a number of vision problems inclusive of the following:
Reduced visual acuity from 20/60 ranging to 20/400 (in some cases as good as 20/25 in African-Americans
Nystagmus, or a back-and-forth movement of the eyes which occurs involuntarily
Strabismum, commonly referred to as "lazy eye", or crossed eyes
Sensitivty to glare and bright lights

Amaurosis Fugax
Amarosis fugax is a monocular loss of sight, or a short-lived blindness in one eye. The symptoms can be described as a curtain or shade being drawn over one eye, and develops abruptly. Low blood flow or a blockage within the main blood vessel providing blood flow to the eye causes this Amaurosis fugax. Travelling upward to the brain or eye and becoming lodged in the main artery supplying the eye, amaurosis fugax blockages are generally caused by a blood clot or plaque which breaks off form a larger artery. It is rare for amaurosis fugax to be prolonged or permanent, as the symptoms are no longer experienced after a breif time period.

Amblyopia, or "lazy eye"
Amblyopia cannot be corrected by glasses or contact lenses, and is not caused by any eye disease. This eye condition, however, is noted by reduced vision. Although this directly affects only one eye, it may cause reduction of vision in both eyes. According to recent estimates, up to three percent of children under the age of six have some form of amblyopia. In patients who suffer from amblyopia, the brain does not fully recognize the images viewed by the ambloyopic eye.

Aniridia
Aniridia is rare and is a congenital or partial absence of the iris. Autosomal dominant or recessive hereditary patterns are the genetic cause for aniridia. In patients who suffer from aniridia, a little more than a margin of the iris is present, and the eye may appear to have no color. Glaucoma develops in these patients, usually before adolescence, and deformities such as cataracts may often be present. A reduction of acuity in patients with aniridia ~ 20/200 is not irregular.

Physiologic Anisocoria
A majority of patients who suffer from anisocoria display a physiologic difference in the size of the two pupils. Generally, the patient suffers from no symptoms, and in many cases, may not be aware of the difference. This difference in size is usually less than 2mm, and responsiveness to light and near testing is normal.

Anophthalmos
Patients with anophthalmia lack the globe and ocular tissue from the orbit. Microphthalmia, or small eyes, and anophthalmia (A/M) can and are used interchangeably - in most CT scans, remnants of either the globe or surrounding tissue are visible. A/M may affect both eyes and result in blindness, or affect only a single eye while the other remains normal.

Aphakia
Aphakia is and absense of the lens which can be due to it being surgically removed, a perforating wound or ulder, or a congenital anomaly. Aphakia causes a loss of hyperopia, accommodation, and a deep anterior chamber. Detachment of the vitreous or retina, and glaucoma are just a few complications from which patients with aphakia suffer.

Astigmatism
Astigmatism occurs when the cornea, or front surface of the eye, is just slightly irregular in its shape. Light is prevented from being focused properly on the back of the eye (retina) due to this irregular shape. The result is that a patient's vision may be blurred at all distances. Blepharitis
Blepharitis is a chronic or long term inflammation of the eyelids and eyelashes. It affects people of all ages. Among the most common causes of blepharitis are poor eyelid hygiene; excessive oil produced by the glands in the eyelid; a bacterial infection (often staphylococcal); or an allergic reaction.

Seborrheic blepharitis is often associated with dandruff of the scalp or skin conditions like acne. It can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelid. It may also result in a roughness of the normally smooth tissue that lines the inside of the eyelid.

Ulcerative blepharitis is less common, but more serious. It is characterized by matted, hard crusts around the eyelashes, which when removed, leave small sores that ooze or bleed. There may also be a loss of eyelashes, distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. In severe cases, the cornea, the transparent front covering of the eyeball, may also become inflamed.

In many cases, good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine may control blepharitis. This includes frequent scalp and face washing; warm soaks of the eyelids; and eyelid scrubs. In cases where bacterial infection is a cause, eyelid hygiene may be combined with various antibiotics and other medications. Eyelid hygiene is especially important upon awakening because debris can build up during sleep. Blepharoptosis
Droopy eyelids (ptosis) occurs when the edge of the upper eyelid that contains the lashes falls too low. When the edge of the eyelid falls and covers part of the pupil, it blocks the upper part of your vision. In severe cases it is necessary to tilt one's head back or lift the eyelid with a finger in order to see out from under the drooping lid .

In most cases, a drooping upper eyelid results from aging of previously normal structures. Typically, the tendon that attaches the "lifting" muscle to the eyelid stretches and the eyelid falls too low.

Since the muscle that lifts the eyelid has normal strength, surgical correction of a drooping upper eyelid that was once normal involves repairing the stretched tendon. It is not uncommon for one to develop a droopy upper eyelid following cataract surgery. The cataract surgery is apparently the "last straw" that causes a weak tendon to finally give way.

Surgery to repair ptosis is most commonly performed by ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgeons who specialize in disease and conditions affecting the eyelids, lacrimal (tear) system, the orbit (bone cavity around the eye), and adjacent facial structures. Blepharospasm
The three most common types of eyelid spasms are eyelid twitch, essential blepharospasm, and hemifacial spasm.

* Eyelid Twitch.
The cause of minor eyelid twitching is unknown. A slight spasm of the lower eyelid or even both eyelids is common and of no concern.

* Essential Blepharospasm.
An involuntary condition usually involving both eyes, where the eyelids, and sometimes the eyebrows, close involuntarily. In advanced cases of essential blepharospasm, muscles of the mouth or neck are sometimes involved in these spasms. When these spasms occur, temporary inability to see may result because of the involuntary eyelid closure. These spasms are rare but very troublesome, and often incapacitating. Blepharospasm is caused by abnormal nerve impulses producing muscle spasms, and almost never a psychiatric disease.

* Hemifacial Spasm.
Hemifacial spasm is a condition which involves the eyelid muscles and usually the muscles around the mouth, but on only one side of the face. Hemifacial spasm is usually caused by an artery pressing on the nerve to the facial muscles causing the face to twitch.

Symptoms
* Twitching or spasm around the eyes
* Facial spasms

The symptoms described above may not necessarily mean that you have eyelid spasms. However, if you experience one or more of these symptoms, contact your eye doctor for a complete exam. Cataracts
A cataract is cloudiness in the usually clear lens of the eye. Common cataract symptoms include poor night vision, sensitivity to light, a painless blurring of vision and a fading or yellowing of colors. Cataracts may develop slowly, over a Period of years, and may not be immediately apparent if the cloudiness is not near the center of the lens.

Cataracts are most commonly caused by aging, but may be related to family history, eye injury, eye surgery or some medications and long-term exposure to sunlight. Surgery is the only method of removing a cataract, though a change of glasses may be sufficient to correct the vision, if the symptoms are mild.
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Dr. Soma Bose is an eye disease expert, eye disease diagnosis specialist, northern virginia eye disease doctor, virginia eye disease care giver, azoor or acute zonal occult outer retinopathy specialist, adie syndrome specialist, ocular albinism specialist, amaurosis fugax specialist, amblyopia or lazy eye specialist, aniridia specialist, psychologic anisocoria specialist, anophthalmos specialist, aphakia specialist, astigmatism specialist, blepharitis specialist, blepharoptosis specialist, blepharospasm specialist, and northern virginia and tysons corner and mclean eye disease specialist.